Iranian Society of Gynecology Oncology

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Non-profit joint stock company Semey Medical University, Republic of the Kazakhstan

2 Medical Lab, Techniques Department, College of Medical Technology, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq

3 English Language and Literature Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Technics, Al-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq

5 Department of Medical Laboratory Technics, AlNoor University College, Nineveh, Iraq

6 Department of Prosthetic Dental Technology, Hilla University College, Babylon, Iraq

7 College of Nursing, National University of Science and Technology, Dhi Qar, Iraq

8 Department of Medical Laboratory Technics, Mazaya University College, Nasiriyah, Iraq


Background & Objective: Cervical cancer screening is crucial for the early detection and prevention of this disease in women. Due to the prevalence of cervical cancer in Iraq, the current study aimed to improve Pap smear screening practices.
Materials & Methods: The present semi-experimental study was conducted in 2019 on 192 Baghdad-based women aged 20 to 60 with active medical records. Two groups of 96 people, intervention and control, were created. The intervention group received training based on the constructs of health belief and stages of change models to enhance Pap smear screening behavior. The control group participated in routine training on Pap smear screening behavior in health centers from health professionals. The participants completed a questionnaire created by the researchers in the pre-test and post-test stages. For data analysis, version 19 of SPSS statistical software and independent t-tests, paired t-tests, chi-square, and Fisher's exact test were utilized.
Results: A p-value of less than 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Before the educational intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the stages of behavior change (P>0.05). However, after the educational intervention, the intervention group significantly differed from the control group in the Pap smear screening change (P<0.01). Also, based on the paired t-test, the mean scores of the intervention group's knowledge, susceptibility, severity, barriers, and self-efficacy were significant before and after the intervention (P<0.05). After the intervention, the intervention group demonstrated significantly higher Pap smear screening behavior than the control group (P<0.01).
Conclusion: The utilization of educational intervention of the stages of change and health beliefs models has proven to be highly effective in bringing individuals to the action stage.


 The utilization of educational intervention of the stages of change and health beliefs models has proven to be highly effective in bringing individuals to the action stage.


Main Subjects

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