Iranian Society of Gynecology Oncology


Gynecologist Oncologist, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) contain estrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progesterone (first-generation levonorgestrel and fourth-generation drospirenone). Progesterone has peripheral effects on the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and cervix and can promote contraception. These pills are used to prevent pain caused by Mittelschmerz syndrome and endometriosis and to treat hyperandrogenism. To prescribe contraceptives, it is adequate to take the patient’s medical history and blood pressure. In the absence of risk factors, patients should be followed-up by history-taking, blood pressure measurement, urinalysis, Pap smear test, and examination of breasts, pelvis, and liver. The risk of venous thrombosis in new OCPs is twice higher than that of older generations and usually occurs in the first year of consumption. The only absolute contraindications for the use of new OCPs include chronic and acute cholestatic liver diseases. In fact, use of new OCPs increases the risk of liver adenoma, but not hepatocellular carcinoma. On the other hand, in female patients with genital tract cancers, risk of endometrial and ovarian epithelial cancers decreases following the use of OCPs. However, the risk of cervical adenocarcinoma increases after 5 years of consumption due to cervical eversion and impaired vitamin metabolism. These pills are contraindicated in women above 35 years who smoke more than 15 cigarettes daily or have uncontrolled hypertension, venous thromboembolism, migraine aura, severe hyperglycemia, breast cancer (diagnosed or suspected), or diabetes mellitus associated with cardiovascular diseases.


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