Reproductive Health Department, Nursing & Midwifery Faculty, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Medicine Faculty, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Nuclear Medicine Department, Medicine Faculty, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Aims: Labor is a painful process. Managing and controlling labor pain is an essential aspect of midwifery services and is the main goal of childbirth care. One of the methods used in traditional medicine to relieve labor pain is aromatherapy. This systematic review and metaanalysis study was an update conducted with the aim of critically evaluating and summarizing all available evidence obtained from randomized clinical trials on the effect of aromatherapy with lavender on labor pain relief.
Information and Methods: In this systematic review, searching a number of foreign databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Scopus, from the start date of these databases to December 2017 was independently conducted by two researchers, using symbols, i.e. Lavender* OR Lavandula* OR silexan AND labor OR labour OR birth OR childbirth. Comprehensive Metaanalysis (CMA) software version 2 was used for statistical analysis.
Findings: Based on the search strategy, 244 primary studies were found. Finally, 5 studies including 541 participants were examined in this systematic review. Three studies were subjected to meta-analysis. In general, the quality of clinical trials was moderate and combinatory. Aromatherapy with lavender reduced labor pain in the active phase. The mean difference of labor pain in the aromatherapy groups with lavender and control groups was 1.05 (0.552-1.548; p=0.000036).
Conclusion: Using aromatherapy with lavender among pregnant women reduces the labor pain. The availability of information obtained from this study can be useful for gynecologists, midwives, and nurses working in labor and delivery units.
- Yadollahi P, Khormaie F, Makvandi S, Soofi A, Ariashekouh A, Hashemifard T. The relationship between personality traits and labor pain intensity. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2013;1(4):224-9.
- Dong C, Hu L, Liang F, Zhang S. Effects of electroacupuncture on labor pain management. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;291(3):531-6. [DOI:10.1007/s00404-014-3427-x] [PMID]
- Saisto T, Toivanen R, Salmela-Aro KA, Halmesmäki E. Therapeutic group psychoeducation and relaxation in treating fear of childbirth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(11):1315-9. [DOI:10.1080/00016340600756920] [PMID]
- Leeman LM, Plante LA. Patient-choice vaginal delivery?. Ann Fam Med. 2006;4(3):265-8. [DOI:10.1370/afm.537] [PMID]
- Gibbons L, Belizán JM, Lauer JA, Betrán AP, Merialdi M, Althabe F. The global numbers and costs of additionally needed and unnecessary caesarean sections performed per year: overuse as a barrier to universal coverage. World Health Rep. 2010;30:1-31.
- Ahmad Nia S, Delavar B, Eini Zinab H, Kazemipour S, Mehryar AH, Naghavi M. Caesarean section in the Islamic Republic of Iran: prevalence and some sociodemographic correlates. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15(6):1389-98.
- Sedigh Mobarakabadi S, Mirzaei Najmabadi K, Ghazi Tabatabaie M. Ambivalence towards Childbirth in a Medicalized Context: A Qualitative Inquiry among Iranian Mothers. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(3):e24262. [DOI:10.5812/ircmj.24262] [PMID]
- Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth J, Rouse D, Spong C. Williams Obstetrics. 23rd Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Professional Press; 2009.
- Karlström A, Lindgren H, Hildingsson I. Maternal and infant outcome after caesarean section without recorded medical indication: findings from a Swedish case-control study. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;120(4):479-86. [DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.12129] [PMID]
- Häger RM, Daltveit AK, Hofoss D, Nilsen ST, Kolaas T, Øian P, et al. Complications of cesarean deliveries: rates and risk factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Feb 1;190(2):428-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2003.08.037] [PMID]
- Nisenblat V, Barak S, Griness OB, Degani S, Ohel G, Gonen R. Maternal complications associated with multiple cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(1):21-6. [DOI:10.1097/01.AOG.0000222380.11069.11] [PMID]
- Liang CC, Chang SD, Wong SY, Chang YL, Cheng PJ. Effects of postoperative analgesia on postpartum urinary retention in women undergoing cesarean delivery. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36(5):991-5. [DOI:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01252.x] [PMID]
- Pal M, Bandyopadhyay S. Bladder Injury during Cesarean Section. J Gen Pract. 2013;1(4):1-4.
- Palanisamy A, Mitani A, Tsen L. General anesthesia for cesarean delivery at a tertiary care hospital from 2000 to 2005: a retrospective analysis and 10-year update. Int J Obstet Anesthesia. 2011;20(1):10-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijoa.2010.07.002] [PMID]
- Oral E, Elter K. The impact of cesarean birth on subsequent fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007;19(3):238-43. [DOI:10.1097/GCO.0b013e32810fd797] [PMID]
- Lang AJ, Sorrell JT, Rodgers CS, Lebeck MM. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of labor pain. Eur J Pain. 2006;10(3):263-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.05.001] [PMID]
- Jones L. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews. J evid Based Med. 2012;5(2):101-2. [DOI:10.1111/j.1756-5391.2012.01182.x] [PMID]
- Forrester L, Maayan N, Orrell M, Spector A, Buchan L, Soares-Weiser K. Aromatherapy for promotion of relaxation and sleep, relief of pain, and reduction of depressive symptoms in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017. Dec]. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/CD003150/DEMENTIA_aromatherapy-for-promotion-of-relaxation-and-sleep-relief-of-pain-and-reduction-of-depressive-symptoms-in-dementia . [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003150.pub2] [PMID]
- Valiani M, Shiran E, Kianpour M, Hasanpour M. Reviewing the effect of reflexology on the pain and certain features and outcomes of the labor on the primiparous women. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15(Suppl1):302-10.
- Makvandi S, Latifnejad Roudsari R, Sadeghi R, Karimi L. Effect of birth ball on labor pain relief: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015;41(11):1679-86. [DOI:10.1111/jog.12802] [PMID]
- Makvandi S, Zargar Shoshtari S, Montazeri S, Ahangarpour A. The effect of chewing sugar-free gum on the anxiety level of active phase of labor in nulliparous women. Razi J Med Sci. 2013;20(112):9-15. [Persian]
- Hajian S, Shariati M, Mirzaii Najmabadi K, Yunesian M, Ajami MS. The effect of the Extended Parallel Process Model of childbirth education for decreasing the rate of Caesarean section among Iranian women. Life Sci J. 2012;9(3):445-52.
- Makvandi S, Mirzaiinajmabadi K, Sadeghi R, Mahdavian M, Karimi L. Meta-analysis of the effect of acupressure on duration of labor and mode of delivery. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2016;135(1):5-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2016.04.017] [PMID]
- Tang SK, Tse M. Aromatherapy: does it help to relieve pain, depression, anxiety, and stress in community-dwelling older persons?. Bio Med Res Int. 2014;2014:430195. [DOI:10.1155/2014/430195] [PMID]
- Smith CA, Collins CT, Crowther CA. Aromatherapy for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6(7):CD009215. [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009215] [PMID]
- Rivard R, Crespin D, Finch M, Johnson J, Dusek J. Effectiveness of therapeutic massage in conjunction with aromatherapy for pain and anxiety relief of hospitalized patients. J Altern Complement Med. 2014;20(5):A125-A. [DOI:10.1089/acm.2014.5333.abstract]
- Hodge NS, McCarthy MS, Pierce RM. A prospective randomized study of the effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J PeriAnesthesia Nurs. 2014;29(1):5-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.jopan.2012.12.004] [PMID]
- Huntley A, Hunt R. Some patients experience relief from postoperative nausea with aromatherapy. Focus Altern Complement Ther. 2014;19(2):114-5. [DOI:10.1111/fct.12116]
- Ovayolu Ö, Seviğ Ü, Ovayolu N, Sevinç A. The effect of aromatherapy and massage administered in different ways to women with breast cancer on their symptoms and quality of life. Int J Nurs Pract. 2014;20(4):408-17. [DOI:10.1111/ijn.12128] [PMID]
- Abbaspoor Z, Mohammadkhani Shahri L. Lavender aromatherapy massages in reducing labor pain and duration of labor: A randomized controlled trial. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;7(8):426-30. [DOI:10.5897/AJPP12.391]
- Vakilian K, Atarha M, Bekhradi R, ChamanR. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):50-3. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.05.006] [PMID]
- Lane B, Cannella K, Bowen C, Copelan D, Nteff G, Barnes K, et al. Examination of the effectiveness of peppermint aromatherapy on nausea in women post C-section. J Holist Nurs. 2012;30(2):90-104. [DOI:10.1177/0898010111423419] [PMID]
- Bakhtshirin F, Abedi S, YusefiZoj P, Razmjooee D. The effect of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil on severity of primary dysmenorrhea in Arsanjan students. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2015;20(1):156-60.
- Lotfipur Rafsanjani SM, Vaziri Nejad R, Ismailzadeh S, Ansari Jaberi A, Bekhradi R, Ravari A, et al. Comparison of the Efficacy of Massage and Aromatherapy Massage With Geranium on Depression in Postmenopausal Women: A Clinical Trial. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2015;17(4). [DOI:10.5812/zjrms.17(4)2015.970]
- Tillett J, Ames D. The uses of aromatherapy in women's health. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2010;24(3):238-45. [DOI:10.1097/JPN.0b013e3181ece75d] [PMID]
- Burns E, Blamey C. Complementary medicine. Using aromatherapy in childbirth. Nurs Times. 1993;90(9):54-60.
- Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, Lloyd AJ, Barnetson L. The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6(1):33-4. [DOI:10.1054/ctnm.1999.0901] [PMID]
- Goldberg L. Massage andaromatherapy: a practical approach. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes; 2001.
- Moeini M, Khadibi M, Bekhradi R, Mahmoudian SA, Nazari F. Effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in ischemic heart disease patients hospitalized in intensive care units of heart hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15(4):234.
- Tournaire M, Theau-Yonneau A. Complementary and alternative approaches to pain relief during labor. Evid Based Med Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(4):409-17. [DOI:10.1093/ecam/nem012] [PMID]
- Jaradat NA. Medical plants utilized in Palestinian folk medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus and cardiac diseases. J Al-Aqsa Univ. 2005;9:1-28.
- Mirzaei F, Keshtgar S, Kaviani M, Rajaeifard A. The effect of lavender essence smelling during labor on cortisol and serotonin plasma levels and anxiety reduction in nulliparous women. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2009;16(3):245-54. [Persian]
- Seraji A, Vakilian K. The comparison between the effects of aromatherapy with lavender and reathing techniques on the reduction of labor pain. Complement Med J fac Nurs Midwifery. 2011;1(1):34-41. [Persian]
- Alavi N, Nemati M, Kaviani M, Tabaie M. The effectof lavender aromatherapy on the pain intensity perception and intarapartum outcomes in primipare. Armaghane Danesh J. 2010;15(1):30-7. [Persian]
- Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [Internet]. London: The Cochrane Collaboration; 2008 [updated 2011 March; cited 2017]. Available from : http://handbook-5-1.cochrane.org/.
- Kaviani M, Azima S, Alavi N, Tabaei MH. The effect of lavender aromatherapy on pain perception and intrapartum outcome in primiparous women. Br J Midwifery. 2014;22(2):125-8. [DOI:10.12968/bjom.2014.22.2.125]
- Mohamadkhani Shahri L, Sabet Birjandi S, Mohamadkhani Shahri H. Effect of massage Aromatherapy with lavandula on the duration of first and second stage of labor in nulliparous women. Bimonthly Journal of Hormozgan Univ Med Sci. 2013;17(2):145-54. [Persian]
- Vakilian K, Karamat A, Mousavi A, Shariati M, Ajami E, Atarha M. The effect of Lavender essence via inhalation method on labor pain. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2012;14(1):34-40. [Persian]
- Pirak A, Salehian T, Yazdkhasti M, Didehvar M, Arzani A. The effect of lavender essence on labor pain and length of delivery time in nulliparous women. Sci J Ilam Univ Med Sci. 2015;23(6):175-84. [Persian]
- Stevensen C. The psychophysiological effects of aromatherapy massage following cardiac surgery. Complement Ther Med. 1994;2(1):27-35. [DOI:10.1016/0965-2299(94)90156-2]
- Beesley A, Hardcastle J, Hardcastle PT, Taylor CJ. Influence of peppermint oil on absorptive and secretory processes in rat small intestine. Gut. 1996;39(2):214-9. [DOI:10.1136/gut.39.2.214] [PMID]
- de Moura Linck V, da Silva AL, Figueiró M, Piato AL, Herrmann AP, Birck FD, et al. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(4):303-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2008.08.001] [PMID]
- Re L, Barocci S, Sonnino S, Mencarelli A, Vivani C, Paolucci G, Scarpantonio A, et al. Linalool modifies the nicotinic receptor-ion channel kinetics at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Pharmacol Res. 2000;42(2):177-81. [DOI:10.1006/phrs.2000.0671] [PMID]
- Adams ED, Bianchi AL. A practical approach to labor support. J Obstet, Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 2008;37(1):106-15. [DOI:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2007.00213.x] [PMID]