1 Shiraz University
2 Sultan Qaboos University
Objectives: Some evidence has shown the beneficial effects of exercise on reducing menopausal symptoms. However, the effect of type of exercise (aquatic and land-based exercise) and cessation of exercise is still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the menopausal symptoms in two aquatic and land-based trained groups before and after cessation of exercise due to COVID-19 outbreak.
Methods: 90 postmenopausal women participated in the study voluntarily. The daily and sport physical activities and menopausal symptoms were assessed through interviews three months after cessation of sport activities and Questions were designed and obtained from daily physical activity form and menopausal rating scale (MRS) questionnaire respectively.
Results: Before the cessation of exercise, the somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms of menopause were lower in both active groups than the inactive group, while there was no significant difference in three categories of menopausal symptoms between aquatic and land- based exercise groups. After the cessation of exercise, menopausal symptoms in the two groups of previously active women increased significantly compared to the inactive group, so that there was no significant difference in menopausal symptoms between exercise and inactive groups.
Conclusion: aquatic and land-based exercise reduces the symptoms of menopause similarly, while the beneficial effects of exercise on menopausal symptoms can disappear after the cessation of exercise for three months.
- 1. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen Y-M, Wang W, Song Z-G, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature. 2020;579(7798):265-9. 2. Hall G, Laddu DR, Phillips SA, Lavie CJ, Arena R. A tale of two pandemics: How will COVID-19 and global trends in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior affect one another? Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2021;64:108. 3. Halabchi F, Ahmadinejad Z, Selk-Ghaffari M. COVID-19 epidemic: exercise or not to exercise; that is the question. Asian J Sports Med. 2020;11(1):e102630. 4. Gozuyesil E, Gokyildiz Surucu S, Alan S. Sexual function and quality-of-life-related problems during the menopausal period. Journal of health psychology. 2018;23(14):1769-80. 5. Farzaneh A, Koushkie Jahromi M, Salesi M, Rostami R. The Ameliorating Impact of Pilates Training on Anxiety and Body Mass Index in Menopausal Symptoms. Women’s Health Bulletin. 2020;7(4):46-53. 6. Blümel JE, Fica J, Chedraui P, Mezones-Holguín E, Zuñiga MC, Witis S, et al. Sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women is associated with severe menopausal symptoms and obesity. Menopause. 2016;23(5):488-93. 7. Dąbrowska-Galas M, Dąbrowska J, Ptaszkowski K, Plinta R. High physical activity level may reduce menopausal symptoms. Medicina. 2019;55(8):466. 8. Sternfeld B, Guthrie KA, Ensrud KE, LaCroix AZ, Larson JC, Dunn AL, et al. Efficacy of exercise for menopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause (New York, NY). 2014;21(4):330. 9. de Azevedo Guimarães AC, Baptista F. Influence of habitual physical activity on the symptoms of climacterium/menopause and the quality of life of middle-aged women. International journal of women's health. 2011;3:319. 10. Becker BE. Aquatic therapy: scientific foundations and clinical rehabilitation applications. Pm&r. 2009;1(9):859-72. 11. Dong R, Wu Y, Xu S, Zhang L, Ying J, Jin H, et al. Is aquatic exercise more effective than land-based exercise for knee osteoarthritis? Medicine. 2018;97(52). 12. Bocalini DS, Serra AJ, Murad N, Levy RF. Water‐versus land‐based exercise effects on physical fitness in older women. Geriatrics & gerontology international. 2008;8(4):265-71. 13. Waller B, Ogonowska-Słodownik A, Vitor M, Rodionova K, Lambeck J, Heinonen A, et al. The effect of aquatic exercise on physical functioning in the older adult: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Age and ageing. 2016;45(5):593-601. 14. Williams RE, Barreria TV, Tseh W. Fitness-related benefits: land-based versus aqua-base. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 2019;60(1):26-31. 15. Moreira LDF, Fronza FCAO, dos Santos RN, Teixeira LR, Kruel LFM, Lazaretti-Castro M. High-intensity aquatic exercises (HydrOS) improve physical function and reduce falls among postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2013;20(10):1012-9. 16. Siqueira US, Valente LGO, de Mello MT, Szejnfeld VL, Pinheiro MM. Effectiveness of aquatic exercises in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, controlled, 16-week intervention—the HydRA trial. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2017;96(3):167-75. 17. Guo L, Ren L, Zhang C. Relationship between depression and inflammatory factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with perimenopause syndrome. Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2018;15(5):4436-40. 18. Thurston RC, El Khoudary SR, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Crandall CJ, Gold E, Sternfeld B, et al. Are vasomotor symptoms associated with alterations in hemostatic and inflammatory markers? Findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Menopause (New York, NY). 2011;18(10):1044. 19. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine & science in sports & exercise. 2003;35(8):1381-95. 20. Schneider H, Heinemann L, Rosemeier H-P, Potthoff P, Behre H. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS): reliability of scores of menopausal complaints. Climacteric. 2000;3(1):59-64. 21. Shorey S, Ang L, Lau Y. Efficacy of mind–body therapies and exercise‐based interventions on menopausal‐related outcomes among Asian perimenopause women: A systematic review, meta‐analysis, and synthesis without a meta‐analysis. Journal of advanced nursing. 2020;76(5):1098-110. 22. Freedman RR. Hot flashes: behavioral treatments, mechanisms, and relation to sleep. The American journal of medicine. 2005;118(12):124-30. 23. Portugal EMM, Cevada T, Monteiro-Junior RS, Guimarães TT, da Cruz Rubini E, Lattari E, et al. Neuroscience of exercise: from neurobiology mechanisms to mental health. Neuropsychobiology. 2013;68(1):1-14. 24. Melancon M, Lorrain D, Dionne I. Exercise and sleep in aging: emphasis on serotonin. Pathologie Biologie. 2014;62(5):276-83. 25. Nemčić T, Budišin V, Vrabec-Matković D, Grazio S. Comparison of the effects of land-based and water-based therapeutic exercises on the range of motion and physical disability in patients with chronic low-back pain: single-blinded randomized study. Acta Clinica Croatica. 2013;52(3.):321-6. 26. Bayraktar D, Guclu-Gunduz A, Lambeck J, Yazici G, Aykol S, Demirci H. A comparison of water-based and land-based core stability exercises in patients with lumbar disc herniation: a pilot study. Disability and rehabilitation. 2016;38(12):1163-71. 27. Britto A, Rodrigues V, Dos Santos AM, Rizzini M, Britto P, Britto L, et al. Effects of water‐and land‐based exercises on quality of life and physical aspects in women with fibromyalgia: A randomized clinical trial. Musculoskeletal Care. 2020;18(4):459-66. 28. Parsons TJ, Sartini C, Welsh P, Sattar N, Ash S, Lennon LT, et al. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and inflammatory and hemostatic markers in men. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2017;49(3):459. 29. Falconer C, Cooper A, Walhin J, Thompson D, Page A, Peters T, et al. Sedentary time and markers of inflammation in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014;24(9):956-62. 30. McCarthy M, Raval AP. The peri-menopause in a woman’s life: a systemic inflammatory phase that enables later neurodegenerative disease. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2020;17(1):1-14. 31. Celestrin CP, Rocha GZ, Stein AM, Guadagnini D, Tadelle RM, Saad MJ, et al. Effects of a four week detraining period on physical, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles of elderly women who regularly participate in a program of strength training. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity. 2020;17(1):1-10.