Iranian Society of Gynecology Oncology

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Al-Hadi University College, Baghdad, Iraq

2 Department of Dentistry, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq

3 Department of Optics, College of Health and Medical Technology, Sawa University, Almuthana, Iraq

4 Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, AL-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq

5 College of Pharmacy, National University of Science and Technology, Dhi Qar, Iraq

6 Al-Esraa University, Collage of Nursing, Baghdad, Iraq

7 College of Pharmacy, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq


Background & Objective: The birth weight is an essential indicator of a baby's health. The birth of infants with low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most significant health issues and one of the leading causes of infant mortality. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and delivery factors on low- and normal-weight infants.
Materials & Methods: The current retrospective study collected data from all 2,731 babies born in Basra in 2022 and their mothers from electronic files. The data consists of demographic information and delivery factors. Babies were divided into two groups based on their weight: LBW (n=192) and normal (n=768). Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 19 and the chi-square, Fisher, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression tests. The level of statistical significance was determined to be equal to 0.05.
Results: The results showed that the variable of intrauterine age less than 37 weeks increases the risk of having a baby with LBW by 1.84 times (0.95CI=0.52-3.12), age less than 20 years increases the risk by 1.76 times (0.95CI=0.83-2.64), BMI in the thin range increases the risk by 1.42 times (0.95CI=0.87-1.84), and anemia with hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl increases the risk by 1.34 times (0.95CI=0.76-1.86).
Conclusion: The results revealed that age, BMI, anemia, and intrauterine age impact birth weight. Therefore, controlling the risk factors mentioned above in mothers before becoming pregnant can reduce the number of LBW babies.


 The results revealed that age, BMI, anemia, and intrauterine age impact birth weight. Therefore, controlling the risk factors mentioned above in mothers before becoming pregnant can reduce the number of LBW babies.


Main Subjects

1. Koivu AM, Näsänen-Gilmore PK, Hunter PJ, Muthiani Y, Isojärvi J, Heimonen O, et al. Antenatal interventions to address harmful behaviors and psychosocial risk factors in the prevention of low birth weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2023;117:S148-S59. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajcnut.2022.11.028] [PMID]
2. Harper A, Rothberg A, Chirwa E, Sambu W, Mall S. Household Food Insecurity and Demographic Factors, Low Birth Weight and Stunting in Early Childhood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study in South Africa. Matern Child Health J. 2023;27(1):59-69. [DOI:10.1007/s10995-022-03555-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Martini S, Lenzi J, Paoletti V, Maffei M, Toni F, Fetta A, et al. Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Extremely Low-birth-weight Infants. J Pediatr. 2023;262:113646. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2023.113646] [PMID]
4. Jacobson LE, Fuentes-Rivera E, Schiavon R, Darney BG. Association of maternal age 35 years and over and prenatal care utilization, preterm birth, and low birth weight, Mexico 2008-2019. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2023;162(2):623-31. [DOI:10.1002/ijgo.14707] [PMID]
5. Derman RJ, Goudar SS, Thind S, Bhandari S, Aghai Z, Auerbach M, et al. RAPIDIRON: Reducing Anaemia in Pregnancy in India-a 3-arm, randomized-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of oral iron with single-dose intravenous iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women and reducing low birth weight deliveries. Trials. 2021;22(1):649. [DOI:10.1186/s13063-021-05549-2] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Roozbeh N, Hajian S, Darvish S, Kiani Z. The Risk Factors Affecting Low Birth Weight in Iran: An Update Systematic Review. J Obstet Gynecol Cancer Res. 2022;7(3):131-43. [DOI:10.30699/jogcr.7.3.131]
7. Yang W, Han N, Jiao M, Chang X, Liu J, Zhou Q, et al. Maternal diet quality during pregnancy and its influence on low birth weight and small for gestational age: a birth cohort in Beijing, China. Br J Nutr. 2022;129(8):1-10. [DOI:10.1017/S0007114522000708] [PMID]
8. McCarthy EK, Dempsey EM, Kiely ME. Iron supplementation in preterm and low-birth-weight infants: a systematic review of intervention studies. Nutr Rev. 2019;77(12):865-77. [DOI:10.1093/nutrit/nuz051] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Surya SS, Jamil NA, Cahyanti D, Rahma A, D. S AA, Dewi TM. Anemia in Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Kalijambe. Med Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia. 2021;17(4):152-62. [DOI:10.30597/mkmi.v17i4.18206]
10. Nazarbek Bakytbeko O, Abdulrazzaq T, Hachim Muhammad E, Mohammed Ali Al Bazi S, A. A. Najm M, Kh. Hussein T, et al. Evaluating the Impact of Various Factors in Pregnant Women on Infants' Low Birth-Weight. J Obstet Gynecol Cancer Res. 2023;8(5):504-11.
11. Mingude AB, Gebretsadik W, Misker D, Woldeamanuel GG. Determinants of low birth weight among live birth newborns delivered at public hospitals in Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia: Unmatched case control study. SAGE Open Med. 2020;8:2050312120940544. [DOI:10.1177/2050312120940544] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Lake EA, Olana Fite R. Low Birth Weight and Its Associated Factors among Newborns Delivered at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. Int J Pediatr. 2019;2019:4628301. [DOI:10.1155/2019/4628301] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Mirzaie F, Rezaie Keikhaie K, Badakhsh M, Khajehpour B, Ghofrani S. Evaluation of Coronavirus Anxiety in Pregnant Women on Apgar Score and Birth Weight After One Year of Coronavirus Outbreak (Case Study: Zabol, Iran). J Obstet Gynecol Cancer Res. 2022;7(2):89-98. [DOI:10.30699/jogcr.7.2.89]
14. Deriba BS, Jemal K. Determinants of Low Birth Weight Among Women Who Gave Birth at Public Health Facilities in North Shewa Zone: Unmatched Case-Control Study. J Health Care. 2021;58:1-. [DOI:10.1177/00469580211047199] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Balasubramanian H, Atyalgade M, Garg B, Srinivasan L, Kabra NS, Khapekar S. Effects of blood sampling stewardship and erythropoietin administration in extremely low birth weight infants-a quality improvement non-controlled before-and-after retrospective study. Eur J Pediatr. 2021;180(5):1617-26. [DOI:10.1007/s00431-020-03925-9] [PMID]
16. Biswas P, Samsuzzaman M, Chakraborty A, Das DK. Maternal anemia and low birth weight in a community development block of Purba Bardhaman, West Bengal: a retrospective cohort analysis. J Community Med Health Public Health. 2019;6(12):5250-5. [DOI:10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20195480]
17. Symington EA, Baumgartner J, Malan L, Wise AJ, Ricci C, Zandberg L, et al. Maternal iron-deficiency is associated with premature birth and higher birth weight despite routine antenatal iron supplementation in an urban South African setting: The NuPED prospective study. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0221299. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0221299] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Seid A, Dugassa Fufa D, Weldeyohannes M, Tadesse Z, Fenta SL, Bitew ZW, et al. Inadequate dietary diversity during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal anemia and low birth weight in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Sci Nutr. 2023;11(7):3706-17. [DOI:10.1002/fsn3.3388] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Traore SS, Bo Y, Kou G, Lyu Q. Iron supplementation and deworming during pregnancy reduces the risk of anemia and stunting in infants less than 2 years of age: a study from Sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2023;23(1):63. [DOI:10.1186/s12884-023-05399-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Izuka EO, Obiora-Izuka CE, Asimadu EE, Enebe JT, Onyeabochukwu AD, Nwagha UI. Effect of Late Antenatal Booking on Maternal Anemia and Fetus Birth Weight on Parturients in Enugu, Nigeria: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study. Niger J Clin Pract. 2023;26(5):558-65. [DOI:10.4103/njcp.njcp_117_22] [PMID]
21. Habtegiorgis SD, Mitiku KW, Tegegne E, Tesfaye A, Azmeraw M, Addis ET, et al. A Systematic Study and Meta-Analysis: The Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and its Determinants in Ethiopia. Available at SSRN 4417075 [Internet]. 2023. [DOI:10.2139/ssrn.4417075]
22. Ghimire R, Phalke DB, Phalke VD, Banjade B, Singh AK. Determinants of low birth weight: a case control study in Pravara Rural hospital in Western Maharashtra, India. Int J Sci Res. 2014;3:243-5. [DOI:10.15373/22778179/July2014/76]
23. Bendhari M, Haralkar S. Study of maternal risk factors for low birth weight neonates: a case-control study. Int M j Med Health Sci Public Health. 2015;4(7):987-90. [DOI:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.20032015203]
24. Singh G, Chouhan R, Sidhu K. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight Babies. Med J Armed Forces India. 2009;65(1):10-2. [DOI:10.1016/S0377-1237(09)80045-2] [PMID]
25. Deshpande JD, Phalke DB, Bangal VB, Peeyuusha D, Bhatt S. Maternal Risk Factors for Low-Birth-Weight Neonates: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study in Rural Area of Western Maharashtra, India. Natl j Community Med. 2011;2(03):394-8.
26. Domple VK, Doibale MK, Nair A, Rajput PS. Assessment of maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra. Niger Med J. 2016;57(1):37-43. [DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.180564] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Yu Y, Groth SW. Risk factors of lower birth weight, small-for-gestational-age infants, and preterm birth in pregnancies following bariatric surgery: a scoping review. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2023;307(2):343-78. [DOI:10.1007/s00404-022-06480-w] [PMID]
28. Hunter PJ, Muthiani Y, Näsänen-Gilmore PK, Koivu AM, Pörtfors P, Bastola K, et al. A modular systematic review of antenatal interventions to address undernutrition during pregnancy in the prevention of low birth weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2023;117:S134-S47. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajcnut.2023.01.024] [PMID]
29. Kundu RN, Ghosh A, Chhetri B, Saha I, Hossain MG, Bharati P. Regional with urban-rural variation in low birth weight and its determinants of Indian children: findings from National Family Health Survey 5 data. Pregnancy Childbirth. 2023;23(1):616. [DOI:10.1186/s12884-023-05934-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Hämäläinen H, Hakkarainen K, Heinonen S. Anaemia in the first but not in the second or third trimester is a risk factor for low birth weight. Clin Nutr. 2003;22(3):271-5. [DOI:10.1016/S0261-5614(02)00209-1] [PMID]
31. Ali AA, Rayis DA, Abdallah TM, Elbashir MI, Adam I. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4(1):1-5. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-4-311] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Fatima M, Nadeem S, Rafique S, Sattar AA, Nadeem A. Low Birth Weight and its Relationship with Anemia during Third Trimester among Females. Pakistan J Medical Health Sci. 2023;17(2):161-. [DOI:10.53350/pjmhs2023172161]
33. Nadhiroh SR, Micheala F, Tung SEH, Kustiawan TC. Association between maternal anemia and stunting in infants and children aged 0-60 months: A systematic literature review. Nutrition. 2023;115:112094. [DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2023.112094] [PMID]
34. Sema A, Tesfaye F, Belay Y, Amsalu B, Bekele D, Desalew A. Associated Factors with Low Birth Weight in Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:2965094. [DOI:10.1155/2019/2965094] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Adam Z, Ameme DK, Nortey P, Afari EA, Kenu E. Determinants of low birth weight in neonates born in three hospitals in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana, 2016-an unmatched case-control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s12884-019-2315-6] [PMID] [PMCID]