Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of infertility, is widely treated with clomiphene citrate and human gonadotropins. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, can also induce ovulation in patients resistant to clomiphene. However, there has been no comprehensive study comparing ovulation induction with clomiphene and letrozole versus clomiphene and human gonadotropin. This study aimed to compare an aromatase inhibitor with human gonadotropin for patients with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.
Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on PCOS women resistant to clomiphene at Akbarabadi hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received letrozole and clomiphene citrate and the second received clomiphene citrate and human gonadotropin.
Results: Total number of 120 patients enrolled in our study. No significant difference was seen between the two groups in terms of demographic and basic clinical characteristics (P>0.05). We also found no significant difference between the two groups in terms of hirsutism, galactorrhea, pregnancy rate, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) intake, primary and secondary infertility, and number of follicles (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The combination of letrozole and clomiphene citrate was as effective as human gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate and it could be a treatment option for patients with infertility due to PCOS.
Keywords: Clomiphene, Human menopausal gonadotropin, Letrozole, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Ovulation